Política na Terra do 'Jeitinho': Consequências dos Comportamentos Políticos em Organizações no Brasil Outros Idiomas

ID:
4281
Resumo:
Os comportamentos políticos nas organizações representam um domínio singular das relações interpessoais no ambiente de trabalho, sendo considerado um fenômeno complexo, persuasivo e por vezes ambíguo. As organizações são instituições intrinsecamente políticas, já que são conjuntos de pessoas com interesses diversos e potencialmente conflituosos, imperando relações entre tais interesses, conflitos e, como sistemas de atividade política, a influência e o poder. De modo geral, a percepção de política na empresa parece ter um efeito negativo e, assim, desmotivador sobre as pessoas. Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo explorar a influência das percepções sobre o comportamento político na satisfação, no desempenho, nos comportamentos negligentes e nas intenções de saída de
funcionários em um contexto cultural pouco explorado pelas pesquisas sobre comportamentos políticos: as organizações brasileiras. Para testar empiricamente a validade do modelo de pesquisa, foi realizado um survey e analisaram-se as percepções de 157 funcionários de três organizações brasileiras, a partir de regressões lineares. Os resultados sugerem que, no Brasil, a política influencia negativamente a satisfação e o desempenho individual e positivamente as intenções de saída e os comportamentos negligentes. Ou seja, quanto maior for a percepção de política no ambiente de trabalho, menor a satisfação e o desempenho individual dos funcionários, maior o seu engajamento em comportamentos
negligentes no trabalho e maior a sua intenção de abandono da organização. Algumas limitações são apresentadas, além das contribuições práticas e teóricas do estudo para a administração. Numa perspectiva prática, a presente pesquisa evidencia os efeitos negativos do comportamento político, objetivando estimular a gerência, líderes e tomadores de decisão para responder a tais efeitos. Numa perspectiva teórica, as contribuições giram em torno do envolvimento do fator cultural para explicação da ação política. Finalmente, de acordo com os resultados encontrados, a política aparentemente tem importantes impactos nos resultados do trabalho, mesmo na terra do jeitinho.
Citação ABNT:
MANSUR, J. A.; SOBRAL, F. Política na Terra do 'Jeitinho': Consequências dos Comportamentos Políticos em Organizações no Brasil. Revista de Administração Mackenzie, v. 12, n. 6, art. 185, p. 165-191, 2011.
Citação APA:
Mansur, J. A., & Sobral, F. (2011). Política na Terra do 'Jeitinho': Consequências dos Comportamentos Políticos em Organizações no Brasil. Revista de Administração Mackenzie, 12(6), 165-191.
Link Permanente:
http://www.spell.org.br/documentos/ver/4281/politica-na-terra-do--jeitinho---consequencias-dos-comportamentos-politicos-em-organizacoes-no-brasil/i/pt-br
Tipo de documento:
Artigo
Idioma:
Português
Referências:
ADAMS G. L.; TREADWAY D. C.; STEPINA, L. P. Perception of politics formation: the predictive capacity of negative and positive affectivity, equity sensitivity, and self-efficacy. Journal of Managerial Issues, n. 4, p. 545-563, 2008.

AL-TUHAIH, S. M.; VAN FLEET, D. D. An exploratory study of organizational politics in Kuwait. Thunderbird International Business Review, v. 53, n. 1, p. 93-104, 2011.

ANDREWS, M. C.; WITT, L. A.; KACMAR, K. M. The interactive effects of organizational politics and exchange ideology on manager ratings of retention. Journal of Vocational Behavior, v. 62, p. 357-369, 2003.

BARBOSA, L. O jeitinho brasileiro: a arte de ser mais igual que os outros. Rio de Janeiro: Campus, 1992.

BARON, R. M.; KENNY, D. A. The moderator-mediator variable distinction in Social Psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, v. 51, p. 1173-1182, 1986.

BARROS, B. T.; PRATES, M. A. S. O estilo brasileiro de administrar. São Paulo: Atlas, 1996.

BIN, D. Comportamento político nas organizações: estudo sobre interesses particularistas em processo decisório. In: ENCONTRO ANUAL DA ANPAD, 29., 2005, Brasília. Anais... Brasília: Anpad, 2005.

BODLA, M. A.; DANISH, R. Q. Politics and workplace: an empirical examination of the relationship between perceived organizational politics and work performance. South Asian Journal of Management, v. 16, n. 1, p. 44-62, 2009.

BOZEMAN, D. P. et al. Organizational politics, perceived control, and work outcomes: Boundary conditions on the effects of politics. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, v. 31, p. 486-503, 2001.

BROUER, R. L.; HARRIS, K. J.; KACMAR, K. The moderating effects of political skill on the perceived politics-outcome relationships. Journal of Organizational Behavior, v. 32, n. 6, p. 869-885, 2011.

CHANG, C. H.; ROSEN, C. C.; LEVY, P. E. The relationship between perceptions of organizational politics and employees attitudes, strain and behavior: ma meta-analytic examination. Academy of Management Journal, v. 52, n. 4, p. 779-780, 2009.

CROPANZANO, R. et al. The relationship of organizational politics and support to work behaviors, attitudes, and stress. Journal of Organizational Behavior, v. 18, n. 2, p. 159-180, 1997.

DHAR, R. Living with organizational politics: an exploration of employees’ behavior. Work, v. 40, n. 2, p. 153-164, 2011.

DRORY, A. Perceived political climate and job attitudes. Organization Studies, v. 14, n. 1, p. 59-71, 1993.

DRORY, A. The definition of organizational politics: a review. Human Relations, v. 43, p. 1133-1154, 1990.

DRORY, A.; ROMM, T. Politics in organization and this perception within the organization. Organization Studies, v. 9, n. 2, p. 165-179, 1988.

DRORY, A.; VIGODA-GADOT, E. Organizational politics and human resource management: a typology and the Israeli experience. Human Resource Management Review, v. 20, n. 3, p. 194-202, 2010.

EDWARDS, B. D. et al. Relationships between facets of job satisfaction and task and contextual performance. Applied Psychology: an International Review, v. 57, n. 3, p. 441-465, 2008.

EMMENDOERFER, M. L.; DOYLE, M. L. F. C. P. O ensino da disciplina de poder e política nas organizações como componente na formação do administrador. E & G Economia e Gestão, Belo Horizonte, v. 4, n. 8, p. 147-164, dez. 2004.

FACHINELLI, A. C. La culture stratégique brésilienne et les enjeux de l’information. ELÉMENTS DE MÉTHODOLOGIE POUR LA FORMATION EN INTELLIGENCE ÉCONOMIQUE. In: CONGRESSO BRASILEIRO DE CIÊNCIAS DA COMUNICAÇÃO, 25., 2002, Salvador. Anais... São Paulo: Intercom 2002. CD-ROM.

FEDOR, D. et al. The contribution of positive politics to the prediction of employee reactions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, v. 38, p. 76-96, 2008.

FEDOR, D.; MASLYN, J. Politics and political behavior: where else do we go from here? In: DANSEREAU, F.; YAMMARINO, F. J. (Org.). Research in multilevel issues. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science, JAI Press, 2002. v. 1, p. 271-286.

FERRIS, G. R. et al. Perceptions of organizational politics: predictions, stress-related implications, and outcomes. Human Relations, v. 48, p. 49-82, 1996 b.

FERRIS, G. R. et al. Perceptions of organizational politics: theory and research directions. In: YAMMARINO, F. J.; DANSEREAU, F. The many faces of multi-level issues. Amsterdam: JAI, 2002. v. 1, p. 179-254.

FERRIS, G. R. et al. Politics and control in organizations. In: LAWLER, E. J. et al. (Ed.). Advances in group processes. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1993. v. 10, p. 83-111.

FERRIS, G. R. et al. Reactions of diverse groups to politics in the workplace. Journal of Management, v. 22, p. 23-44, 1996 a.

FERRIS, G. R.; JUDGE, T. A. Personnel/human resources management: a political influence perspective. Journal of Management, v. 17, n. 2, p. 447-488, 1991.

FERRIS, G. R.; KACMAR, K. Perceptions of organizational politics. Journal of Management, v. 18, n. 1, 1992.

FERRIS, G. R.; KING, T. R. Politics in human resources decisions: a walk on the dark side, Organizational Dynamics, v. 20, n. 2, p. 59-71, 1991.

FERRIS, G. R.; RUSS, G. S.; FANDT, P. M. Politics in organizations. In: GIACALONE, R. A.; ROSENFELD, P. Impression management in organizations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1989. p. 143-170.

FROST, P. J. Power, politics and influence. In: JABLIN, F. et al. Handbook of organizational communication. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1987.

GANDZ, J.; MURRAY, V. The experience of workplace politics. Academy of Management Journal, v. 23, p. 237-251, 1980.

GILMORE, D. C. et al. Organizational politics and employee attendance. Group Organization Management, v. 21, p. 481-494, 1996.

GOTSIS, G.; KORTEZI, Z. Ethical considerations in organizational politics: expanding the perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, v. 93, n. 4, p. 497-517, 2010.

HAIR, J. et al. Multivariate data analysis. 5. ed. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall, 1998.

HARRIS, K. J.; ANDREWS, M. C.; KACMAR, M. K. The moderating effects of justice on the relationship between organizational politics and workplace attitudes. Journal of Business and Psychology, v. 22, p. 135-144, 2007.

HARRIS, K. J.; KACMAR, K. M. Easing the strain: the buffer role of supervisors in the perceptions of politics-strain relationship. Journal of Occupation e Organizational Psychology, v. 78, p. 337-354, 2005.

HIRSCHMAN, A. O. Exit, voice, and loyalty: responses to decline in firms, organizations and States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1970.

HOCHWARTER, W. et al. Non-linear politics perceptions – work outcome relationships: a three study, five sample investigation. Journal of Management, v. 36, p. 740-763, 2010.

HOCHWARTER, W. et al. The interaction of social skill and organizational support on job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, v. 91, p. 482-489, 2006.

HOCHWARTER, W.; THOMPSON, K. The moderating role of optimism on politics-outcomes relationships: a test of competing perspectives. Human Relations, v. 63, p. 1-24, 2010.

HOCHWARTER, W.; WITT, L.; KACMAR, K. M. Perceptions of organizational politics as a moderator of the relationship between conscientiousness and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, v. 85, p. 472-478, 2000.

HOFSTEDE, G. The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of International Business Studies, v. 14, 1983.

INDARTONO, S.; CHUN-HIS VIVIAN, C. Moderating effects of tenure and gender on the relationship between perception of organizational politics and commitment and trust. South Asian Journal of Management, v. 18, n. 1, p. 7-36, 2011.

JEX, S. M.; BEEHR, T. A. Emerging theoretical and methodological issues in the study of workrelated stress. In: ROWLAND, K.; FERRIS, G. (Ed.). Research in personnel and human resource management. Stamford, CT: JAI Press, 1991. p. 311-365.

JUSTA, M. G. E. G. Alguns ousam chamá-lo de racional: um processo decisório na Secretaria Estadual da Saúde de São Paulo. 2011. Dissertação (Mestrado em Administração de Empresas)–Fundação Getulio Vargas, São Paulo, 2011.

KACMAR, K. M. et al. Fostering good citizenship through ethical leadership: exploring the moderating role of gender and organizational politics. Journal of Applied Psychology, v. 96, n. 3, p. 633-642, 2011.

KACMAR, K. M. et al. An examination of the perceptions of organizational politics model: replication and extension. Human Relations, v. 52, p. 383-416, 1999.

KACMAR, K. M.; BARON, R. A. Organizational politics: the state of the field, links to related processes, and an agenda for future research. In: ROWLAND, K. M.; FERRIS, G. R. Research in personnel and human resources management. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1999. v. 1, p. 1-39.

KACMAR, K. M.; CARLSON, D. S. Further validation of the perceptions of politics scale (Pops): a multiple sample investigation, Journal of Management, v. 23, p. 627-658, 1997.

KACMAR, K. M.; FERRIS, G. R. Perceptions of organizational politics scale (Pops): development and construct validation. Educational and Psychological Measurement, v. 51, p. 193-205, 1991.

LARWOOD, L. et al. Extending latent role and psychological contract theories to predict intent to turnover and politics in business organizations. Group and Organization Management, v. 23, n. 2, p. 100-123, 1998.

LECK, J. D.; SAUNDERS, D. M. Hirschman’s loyalty: attitude or behavior? Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, v. 5, p. 219-229, 1992.

LEPINE, J. A.; PODSAKOFF, N. P.; LEPINE, M. A. A meta-analytic test of the challenge stressor hindrance stressor framework: an explanation for inconsistent relationships among stressors and performance. Academy of Management Journal, v. 48, p. 764-775, 2005.

LEWIN, K. Principles of topological psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1936.

LOCKE, E. A. The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In: DUNNETTE, M. D. (Org.). Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Chicago: Rand McNally College, 1976. p. 1297-1350.

MASLYN, J.; FEDOR, D. Perceptions of politics: does measuring different foci matter? Journal of Applied Psychology, v. 84, p. 645-653, 1998.

MAYES, B. T.; ALLEN, N. J. Toward a definition of organizational politics. Academy of Management Review, v. 2, p. 672-678, 1977.

MILLER, B. K.; RUTHERFORD, M. A.; KOLODINSKY, R. W. Perceptions of organizational politics: a meta analysis of outcomes. Journal of Business and Psychology, v. 22, n. 3, p. 202-222, 2008.

MINTZBERG, H. Power in and around organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1983.

MIRANDA, S. O tabu do poder e da política nos estudos organizacionais. Revista de Administração UFSM, Santa Maria, v. 2, n. 1, p. 490-501, maio/ago. 2009.

NYE, L. G.; WITT, L. A. Dimensionality and construct validity of the perceptions of politics scale (Pops). Educational and Psychological Measurement, v. 53, p. 821-829, 1993.

PEDROSO, J.; MASSUKADO-NAKATANI, M.; MUSSI, F. A relação entre o jeitinho brasileiro e o perfil empreendedor: possíveis interfaces no contexto da atividade empreendedora no Brasil. Revista de Administração Mackenzie, São Paulo, v. 10, n. 4, p. 100-130, 2009.

PFEFFER, J. Power in organizations. Boston: Pittman, 1981.

POON, J. M. L. Situational antecedents and outcomes of organizational politics perceptions. Journal of Managerial Psychology, v. 18, n. 1/2, p. 138-155, 2003.

RANDALL, M. L. et al. Organizational politics and organizational support as predictors of work attitudes, job performance, and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, v. 20, n. 2, p. 159-174, 1999.

RENNÓ, L. R. Confiança interpessoal e comportamento político: microfundamentos da teoria do capital social na América Latina. Opinião Pública, Campinas, v. VII, n. 1, p. 33-59, maio 2001.

ROSEN, C. C.; HARRIS, K. J.; KACMAR, K. M. The emotional implications of organizational politics: a process model. Human Relations, v. 62, n. 1, p. 27-57, Jan. 2009.

ROSEN, C. C.; LEVY, P. E.; HALL, R. J. Placing perceptions of politics in the context of the feedback environment, employee attitudes, and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, v. 91, p. 211-220, 2006.

SCHULER, R. S. Definition and conceptualization of stress in organizations. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, v. 25, p. 184-215, 1980.

SILVA, C. F. O poder nas organizações: um estudo preliminar a partir da percepção dos trabalhadores. 2007. Dissertação (Mestrado em Psicologia)–Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, 2007.

TREADWAY, D. C. et al. The role of age in the perceptions of politics-job performance relationship: a constructive replication. Journal of Applied Psychology, v. 90, p. 872, 2005.

TREADWAY, D. C. et al. Leader political skill and employee reactions. Leadership Quarterly, v. 15, p. 493-513, 2004.

VALLE, M.; WITT, L. A. The moderating effect of teamwork perceptions on the organizational politics – job satisfaction relationship. The Journal of Social Psychology, v. 141, n. 3, p. 379-388, 2001.

VIEIRA, C. A.; COSTA, F. L.; BARBOSA; L. O. O jeitinho brasileiro como um recurso de poder. Revista de Administração Pública, Rio de Janeiro, v. 16, abr./jun, 1982.

VIGODA-GADOT, E. et al. Politics and image in the organizational landscape: an empirical examination among public sector employees. Journal of Managerial Psychology, v. 18, p. 764-787, 2003.

VIGODA-GADOT, E.; KAPUN, D. Perceptions of politics and perceived performance in public and private organizations: a test of one model across two sectors. Policy and Politics, v. 33, n. 2, p. 251-276, 2005.

VIGODA-GADOT, E.; MEISLER, G. Emotions in management and the management of emotions: the impact of emotional intelligence and organizational politics on public sector employees. Public Administration Review, v. 70, n. 1, p. 72-86, 2010.

VIGODA-GADOT, E.; TALMUD, I. Organizational politics and job outcomes: the moderating effect of trust and social support. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, v. 40, n. 11, p. 2829-2861, 2010.

VIGODA-GADOT, E.; TALMUD, I.; PELED, A. Internal politics in academia: its nature and mediating effect on the relationship between social capital and work outcomes. International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, v. 14, n. 1, p. 1-37, 2011.

VIGODA, E. Organizational politics, job attitudes, and work outcomes: exploration and implications for the public sector. Journal of Vocational Behavior, v. 57, n. 3, p. 326-347, 2000b.

VIGODA, E. Reactions to organizational politics: a cross-cultural examination in Israel and Britain. Human Relations, v. 54, p. 1483-1518, 2001.

VIGODA, E. Internal politics in public administration systems: an empirical examination of its relationship with job congruence, organizational citizenship behavior, and in-role performance. Public Personnel Management, v. 29, p. 185-210, 2000a.

WEICK, K. E. Enacting an environment: the infrastructure of organizing. In: WESTWOOD, R.; CLEGG, S. (Ed.). Debating organization. point-counterpoint in organization studies. Oxford: Blackwell, 2003.

WEICK, K. E. Enactment and organizing. In: WEICK, K. E. The social psychology of organizing. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1979. p. 147-169.

WEICK, K. E. Organizational redesign as improvisation. In: HUBER, G. P.; GLICK W. H. Organizational change and redesign. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. p. 346-379.

WEISS, D. J. et al. Manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Industrial Relations Center, 1967.

WITT, L. A. et al. Interactive effects of personality and organizational politics on contextual performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, v. 23, n. 8, p. 911-926, 2002.