Múltiplas lentes de estudo e abordagem da liderança Outros Idiomas

ID:
68145
Resumo:
Este artigo discute as múltiplas formas de estudo da liderança, com um interesse particular nos recentes estudos empíricos e teóricos da produção científica brasileira. O artigo revisa o que denominamos as três principais lentes de estudo da liderança (i.e., liderança individual, followership, liderança coletiva), e a tipologia utilizada no artigo resume a visão essencial de cada lente, bem como a sua evolução histórica. Essa discussão sobre as três lentes é utilizada para analisar a literatura científica sobre liderança em periódicos científicos brasileiros no período entre 2016 e 2021. A revisão sistemática de literatura de 32 artigos aponta para uma ênfase na primeira lente, isto é, o foco em líderes individuais, em posições formais de autoridade e para a ideia de que liderança é mais uma atividade hierárquica e vertical do que um fenômeno coletivo. O artigo conclui sinalizando as oportunidades para estudos empíricos em abordagens mais contemporâneas sobre liderança coletiva em organizações brasileiras.
Citação ABNT:
SOUZA, R.; WOOD JR., T. Múltiplas lentes de estudo e abordagem da liderança. Revista de Administração de Empresas, v. 62, n. 6, p. 1-20, 2022.
Citação APA:
Souza, R., & Wood Jr., T. (2022). Múltiplas lentes de estudo e abordagem da liderança. Revista de Administração de Empresas, 62(6), 1-20.
DOI:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-759020220607x
Link Permanente:
http://www.spell.org.br/documentos/ver/68145/multiplas-lentes-de-estudo-e-abordagem-da-lideranca/i/pt-br
Tipo de documento:
Artigo
Idioma:
Português
Referências:
Abelha, D., Carneiro, P., & Cavazotte, F.(2018). Transformational leadership and job satisfaction: Assessing the influence of organisational contextual factors and individual characteristics. Revista Brasileira de Gestão de Negócios, 20(4), 516-532. doi: 10.7819/rbgn.v0i0.3949 » https://doi.org/10.7819/rbgn.v0i0.3949

Armani, A., Petrini, M., & Santos, A. (2020). What are the attributes of sustainable leadership? Revista Brasileira de Gestão de Negócios, 22(4), 820-835. doi: 10.7819/rbgn.v22i4.4086 » https://doi.org/10.7819/rbgn.v22i4.4086

Avolio, B., & Gardner, W.(2005). Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root of positive forms of leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 6(2),315-338. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2005.03.001 » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2005.03.001

Balthazard, P., Waldman, D., & Warren, J. (2009). Predictors of the emergence of transformational leadership in virtual decision teams. Leadership Quarterly, 20, 651-663. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.06.008 » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.06.008

Barbosa, F., Gambi, L., & Gerolamo, M. (2017). Leadership and quality management: A correlational study between leadership models and quality management principles. Gestão & Produção, 24(3), 438-449. doi: 10.1590/0104-530X2278-16 » https://doi.org/10.1590/0104-530X2278-16

Barros, B.T., & Prates, M. A. (1996). O estilo brasileiro de administrar São Paulo, SP: Atlas.

Bass, B. (1997). Does the transactional-transformational leadership paradigm transcend organisational and national boundaries? American Psychologist, 52(2), 130-139. doi: 0.1037/0003-066X.52.2.130 » https://doi.org/0.1037/0003-066X.52.2.130

Bass, B., & Riggio, R. (2006). Transformational leadership (2nd ed.). Mahwah, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Besen, F., Tecchio, E., & Fialho, F. (2017). Authentic leadership and knowledge management. Gestão & Produção, 24(1), 2-14. doi: 10.1590/0104-530X898-13 » https://doi.org/10.1590/0104-530X898-13

Bianchi, E., Quishida, A., & Foroni, P. (2017). Atuação do líder na gestão estratégica de pessoas: Reflexões, lacunas e oportunidades. RAC Revista de Administração Contemporânea, 21(1), 41-61. doi: 10.1590/1982-7849rac2017150280 » https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-7849rac2017150280

Blom, M., & Alvesson, M. (2014). Leadership on demand: Followers as initiators and inhibitors of managerial leadership. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 30, 344-357. doi: 10.1016/j.scaman.2013.10.006 » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scaman.2013.10.006

Bono, J., & Judge, T. (2004). Personality and transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(5), 901-910. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.89.5.901 » https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.5.901

Campos, M., & Rueda, F. (2019). Authentic leadership: A theoretical thematic analysis of the contemporary Brazilian leader's speech. Paideia, 29, e2924. doi: 10.1590/1982-4327e2924 » https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-4327e2924

Can, A., & Aktas, M. (2012). Cultural values and followership styles preferences. Social and Behavioural Sciences, 41, 84-91. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.04.012 » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.04.012

Carroll, B., Levy, L., & Richmond, D. (2008). Leadership as practice: Challenging the competency paradigm. Leadership, 4(4), 363-379. doi: 10.1177%2F1742715008095186 » https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1742715008095186

Carson, J., Tesluk, P., & Marrone, J. (2007). Shared leadership in teams: An investigation of antecedent conditions and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 50, 1217-1234. doi: 10.2307/20159921 » https://doi.org/10.2307/20159921

Carsten, M.,Uhl-Bien, M., West, B., Patera, J., & McGregor, R. (2010). Exploring social construction of followership: A qualitative study. Leadership Quarterly, 21, 543-562. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.03.015 » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.03.015

Carter, D., DeChurch, L., Braun, M., & Contractor, N. (2015). Social network approaches to leadership: An integrative conceptual review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(3), 597-622. doi: 10.1037/a0038922 » https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038922

Carvalho, J., Sobral, F., & Mansur, J. (2020). Exploring shared leadership in public organisations: Evidence from the educational arena. Brazilian Journal of Public Administration, 54(3), 524-544. doi: 10.1590/0034-761220190319x » https://doi.org/10.1590/0034-761220190319x

Chaleff, I. (2009). The courageous follower San Francisco, USA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Collinson, D. (2005). Dialectics of leadership. Human Relations, 58(11), 1419-1442. doi: 10.1177%2F0018726705060902 » https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0018726705060902

Collinson, D. (2006). Rethinking followership: A post-structuralist analysis of follower identities. Leadership Quarterly, 17, 179-189. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2005.12.005 » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2005.12.005

Cortes, M., Souza, M., & Puente-Palacios, K. (2019). Qualidade da relação líder-membro: Evidências de validade da escala multidimensional. Psico-USF, 24(3), 569-581. doi: 10.1590/1413-82712019240313 » https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-82712019240313

Crevani, L. (2018). Is there leadership in a fluid world? Exploring the ongoing production of direction in organising. Leadership, 14(1), 83-109. doi: 10.1177%2F1742715015616667 » https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1742715015616667

Crevani, L., Lindgren, M., & Packendorff, J. (2010). Leadership, not leaders: On the study of leadership as practices and interactions. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 26(1), 77-86. doi: 10.1016/j.scaman.2009.12.003 » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scaman.2009.12.003

Crevani, L.,Lindgren, M., & Packendorff, J. (2007). Shared leadership: A post-heroic perspective on leadership as a collective construction. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 3(1), 40-67. Recuperado de https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:455741/FULLTEXT01.pdf » https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:455741/FULLTEXT01.pdf

Cunliffe A., & Eriksen M. (2011) Relational leadership. Human Relations, 64(11), 1425-1449. doi: 10.1177%2F0018726711418388 » https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0018726711418388

Denis, J., Langley, A., & Sergi, V. (2012). Leadership in the plural. Academy of Management Annals, 6(1), 211-283. doi:10.1080/19416520.2012.667612 » https://doi.org/10.1080/19416520.2012.667612

DeRue,S., & Ashford, S. (2010). Who will lead and who will follow? A social process of leadership identity construction in organisations. Academy of Management Review, 35(4), 627-647. http://www.jstor.org/stable/29765008 » http://www.jstor.org/stable/29765008

Drath, W., McCauley, C., Paulus, C. J., Velsor, E. Van, O'Connor, P., & McGuire, J. B. (2008). Direction, alignment, commitment: Toward a more integrative ontology of leadership, Leadership Quarterly, 19, 635-653. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2008.09.003 » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2008.09.003

Dvir, T., & Shamir, B. (2003). Follower developmental characteristics as predicting transformational leadership: A longitudinal field study. Leadership Quarterly, 14, 327-344. doi: 10.1016/S1048-9843(03)00018-3 » https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(03)00018-3

Fairhurst, G., Jackson, B., Foldy, E., & Ospina,S. (2020). Studying collective leadership: The road ahead. Human Relations, 73(4), 598-614. doi: 10.1177%2F0018726719898736 » https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0018726719898736

Filho, A., Ferreira, M., & Valentini, F. (2019). Validity evidence of the Ethical Leadership Behavior Scale (ELBS). Psico-USF, 24(2), 349-359. doi: 10.1590/1413-82712019240211 » https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-82712019240211

Fonseca, A., & Porto, J., Barroso, A. (2012). O efeito de valores pessoais nas atitudes perante estilos de liderança. Revista de Administração Mackenzie, 13(3), 122-149. doi: 10.1590/S1678-69712012000300007 » https://doi.org/10.1590/S1678-69712012000300007

Fonseca, A., Porto, J., & Borges-Andrade, J. (2015). Liderança: Um retrato da produção científica brasileira. RAC Revista de Administração Contemporânea, 19(3), 290-310. doi: 10.1590/1982-7849rac20151404 » https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-7849rac20151404

Ford, J., Harding, N., & Learmonth, L. (2008). Leadership as identity: Constructions and deconstructions London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Gambirage, C., Jacomossi, F., Silva,J., & Hein, N. (2019). Estilos de liderança predominantes em uma indústria madeireira no Meio-Oeste catarinense: Um estudo de caso. Interações, 20(3), 753-768. doi: 10.20435/inter.v20i3.2062 » https://doi.org/10.20435/inter.v20i3.2062

Garcia-Santos, S., & Werlang, B. (2013). Alto desempenho gerencial, contexto desafiador e personalidade. Estudos de Psicologia, 18(2), 182-191. Recuperado de https://www.scielo.br/j/epsic/a/yTbRyfzP76vvzyh9S8qPXyJ/?format=pdf⟨=pt » https://www.scielo.br/j/epsic/a/yTbRyfzP76vvzyh9S8qPXyJ/?format=pdf⟨=pt

Garcia, F., & Russo, R. (2019). Leadership and performance of the software development team: Influence of the type of project management. Revista Brasileira de Gestão de Negócios, 21(4), 970-1005. doi: 10.7819/rbgn.v21i5.4028 » https://doi.org/10.7819/rbgn.v21i5.4028

Gemmil, G., & Oakley J. (1992). Leadership: An alienating social myth? Human Relations, 45(2), 113-129. doi: 10.1177%2F001872679204500201 » https://doi.org/10.1177%2F001872679204500201

Glynn, M., & DeJordy, R. (2010). Leadership through an organisation behavior lens. In N. Nohria, & R. Khurana (Eds.), Handbook of leadership theory and practice (pp. 119-145). Boston, USA: Harvard Business Press.

Godoy, M., & Mendonça, H. (2020). Adaptive expertise: A study on the influence of self-determination and transformational leadership. Cadernos EBAPE.BR, 18, 742-776. doi: 10.1590/1679-395120190147x » https://doi.org/10.1590/1679-395120190147x

Gordon, R. (2011). Leadership and power. In B. Bryman, D. Collinson, K. Grint, B. Jackson, & M. Uhl-Bien (Eds.), Handbook of leadership (pp. 195-202). London, UK: Sage.

Graen, G., & Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). Relationship-based approach to leadership: Development of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory of leadership over 25 years: Applying a multi-level multi-domain perspective. Leadership Quarterly, 6, 219-247. doi: 10.1016/1048-9843(95)90036-5 » https://doi.org/10.1016/1048-9843(95)90036-5

Grint, K. (2005). Leadership: Limits and possibilities New York, USA: Palgrave Macmillan.

Gronn, P. (2002). Distributed leadership as a unit of analysis. Leadership Quarterly, 13(4), 423-451. doi: 10.1016/S1048-9843(02)00120-0 » https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(02)00120-0

Gronn, P. (2009). Leadership configurations. Leadership, 5(3), 381-394.

Gronn, P. (2015). The view from inside leadership configurations. Human Relations, 68(4), 545-560. doi: 10.1177/0018726714563811 » https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726714563811

Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (1991). Cultures and organizations: The software of the mind New York, USA: McGraw-Hill.

Holm, F., & Fairhurst, G. (2018). Configuring shared and hierarchical leadership through authoring. Human Relations, 71(5), 692-721. doi: 10.1177%2F0018726717720803 » https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0018726717720803

Howell, J., & Shamir, B. (2005). The role of followers in the charismatic leadership process: Relationships and their consequences. Academy of Management Review, 30(1), 96-112. Recuperado de https://www.jstor.org/stable/20159097 » https://www.jstor.org/stable/20159097

Hryniewicz,L., & Vianna, M. (2018). Women and leadership: Obstacles and gender expectations in managerial positions. Cadernos EBAPE.BR, 15(3), 331-344. doi: 10.1590/1679-395174876 » https://doi.org/10.1590/1679-395174876

Jackson, B. (2005). The enduring romance of leadership studies. Journal of Management Studies 42(6), 1311-1324. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.2005.00544.x » https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2005.00544.x

Jackson, B., & Parry, K. (2018). A very short, fairly interesting and reasonably cheap book about studying leadership (3rd ed.). London, UK: Sage Publications Ltd.

Judge, T., Piccolo, R., & Kosalka, T. (2009). The bright and dark sides of leader traits: A review and theoretical extension of the leader trait paradigm. Leadership Quarterly, 20(6), 855-875. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.09.004 » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.09.004

Kellerman, B. (2008). Followership: How followers are creating change and changing leaders Boston, USA: Harvard Business Review Press.

Kellerman, B. (2012). The end of leadership New York, USA: HarperCollins Publishers.

Kelley, R. E. (1992). The power of followership New York, USA: Doubleday.

Lourenço, V., Perez-Nebra, A., Ferreira, A., & Kohlsdorf, M. (2020). Relação entre presenteísmo, síndrome de burnout e liderança ética em organizações escolares. Revista de Psicologia, 32, 218-226. doi: 10.22409/1984-0292/v32_i-esp/40568 » https://doi.org/10.22409/1984-0292/v32_i-esp/40568

Marins, M., Martins, P., & Pasqual, C. (2016). Os pilares da liderança e o modelo situacional: A influência do líder na formação de equipes de alta performance e nos resultados. Teoria e Evidência Econômica, 22(46), 199-224. doi: 10.5335/rtee.v22i46.6759 » https://doi.org/10.5335/rtee.v22i46.6759

Matarazzo, G., Fernandes, A., & Alcadipani, R. (2020). Police institutions in the face of the pandemic: Sensemaking, leadership, and discretion. Brazilian Journal of Public Administration, 54(4), 898-908. doi: 10.1590/0034-761220200178x » https://doi.org/10.1590/0034-761220200178x

Meindl, J. (1995). The romance of leadership as a follower-centric theory: A social constructionist approach. Leadership Quarterly, 6(33), 329-341. doi: 10.1016/1048-9843(95)90012-8 » https://doi.org/10.1016/1048-9843(95)90012-8

Meindl, J., Ehrlich, S, & Dukerich, J. (1985). The romance of leadership. Administrative Science Quarterly, 30, 78-102. doi: 10.2307/2392813 » https://doi.org/10.2307/2392813

Melo, A., Borba, M., Correia, M., & Cabral, R. (2019). Liderança e gestão: Um estudo em organizações não governamentais (ONGs) na região metropolitana do Recife, PE. Interações, 20(4), 1149-1164. doi: 10.20435/inter.v20i4.2077 » https://doi.org/10.20435/inter.v20i4.2077

Melo, E. (2004). Escala de avaliação do estilo gerencial (EAEG): Desenvolvimento e validação. Psicologia: Organizações e Trabalho, 4(2), 31-62. Recuperado de http://pepsic.bvsalud.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1984-66572004000200003&lng=pt&nrm=iso » http://pepsic.bvsalud.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1984-66572004000200003&lng=pt&nrm=iso

Miltersteiner, R., Oliveira, F., Hryniewicz, L., Sant'Anna, A., & Moura, L. (2020). Female leadership: Perceptions, reflections, and challenges in public administration. Cadernos EBAPE, 18(2), 406-423. doi: 10.1590/1679-395120190176x » https://doi.org/10.1590/1679-395120190176x

Moura, A., Bernardes, A., Balsanelli, A., Zanetti, A., & Gabriel, C. (2017). Leadership and nursing work satisfaction: An integrative review. Acta Paulista de Enfermagem, 30(4), 442-450. doi: 10.1590/1982-0194201700055 » https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0194201700055

Muzzio, H. (2017). Indivíduo, liderança e cultura: Evidências de uma gestão da criatividade. RAC Revista de Administração Contemporânea, 21(1), 107-124. doi: 10.1590/1982-7849rac2017160039 » https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-7849rac2017160039

Novaes, V., Ferreira, M., & Gabardo-Martins, L. (2019). Validity evidences regarding the authentic leadership inventory. Estudos de Psicologia, 36, e180058. doi:10.1590/1982-0275201936e180058 » https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0275201936e180058

Oliveira, A., & Carvalho, C. (2018). Public school management, leadership, and educational results in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Educação, 23, e230015. doi: 10.1590/S1413-24782018230015 » https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-24782018230015

Ortunes, L., Martinho, S., & Chaia, V. (2019). Lideranças políticas no Brasil: Da teologia da libertação ao neofundamentalismo. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Política, 28, 195-232. doi: 10.1590/0103-335220192807 » https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-335220192807

Ospina, S., Foldy, E., Fairhurst, G., & Jackson, B. (2020). Collective dimensions of leadership: Connecting theory and method. Human Relations, 73(4), 441-463. doi: 10.1177%2F0018726719899714 » https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0018726719899714

Pearce, C., & Conger, J. (2003). Shared leadership: Reframing the hows and whys of leadership Thousand Oaks, USA: Sage.

Pessoa, C., Dimas, I., Lourenço, P., & Rebelo, T. (2018). Liderança transformacional e a eficácia grupal: O papel mediador dos comportamentos de suporte. Estudos de Psicologia, 35(1), 15-28. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-02752018000100003 » https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-02752018000100003

Pioli, B., Feuerschütte, S., Tezza, R., & Cancellier, E. (2020). Authentic leadership: Scientific production analysis and measurement scales. Revista de Administração Mackenzie, 21(3), 1-29. doi: 10.1590/1678-6971/eRAMG200126 » https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-6971/eRAMG200126

Raelin, J. (2016). Imagine there are no leaders: Reframing leadership as collaborative agency. Leadership , 12(2), 131-158. doi: 10.1177%2F1742715014558076 » https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1742715014558076

Raelin, J. (2018). What are you afraid of: Collective leadership and its learning implications? Management Learning, 49(1), 59-66. doi: 10.1177%2F1350507617729974 » https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1350507617729974

Rickards, T. (2015). Dilemmas of leadership London, UK: Routledge.

Rush, M., Thomas, J., & Lord, R. (1977). Implicit leadership theory: A potential threat to the internal validity of leader behavior questionnaires. Organisational Behavior and Human Performance, 20, 93-110. doi: 10.1016/0030-5073(77)90046-0 » https://doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073(77)90046-0

Sergi, V., Denis, J.-L., & Langley, A. (2012). Opening up perspectives on plural leadership. Industrial and Organisational Psychology, 5(4), 403-407. doi:10.1111/j.1754-9434.2012.01468.x » https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2012.01468.x

Silva, P., Nunes, S., & Andrade, D. (2019). Managers' leadership style and the commitment of their team members: Associating concepts in search of possible relations. Revista Brasileira de Gestão de Negócios, 21(2), 291-311. doi: 10.7819/rbgn.v21i2.3975 » https://doi.org/10.7819/rbgn.v21i2.3975

Sklaveniti, C. (2020). Moments that connect: Turning points and the becoming of leadership. Human Relations, 73(4), 544-571. doi: 10.1177%2F0018726719895812 » https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0018726719895812

Sobral, F., & Furtado, L. (2019). Post-heroic leadership: Trends and challenges in leadership education. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 59(3), 209-214. doi: 10.1590/S0034-759020190306 » https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-759020190306

Sobral, F., Carvalho, J., & Furtado, L. (2020). Better safe than sorry: Leadership sensemaking in the time of COVID-19. Brazilian Journal of Public Administration, 54(4), 758-781. doi: 10.1590/0034-761220200262x » https://doi.org/10.1590/0034-761220200262x

Sobral, F., Furtado, L., & Islam, G. (2019). Humor as catalyst and neutralizer of leadership effectiveness. RAE-Revista de Administração de Empresas, 59(5), 313-326. doi: 10.1590/S0034-759020190502 » https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-759020190502

Sousa, B., & Cardoso, A. (2020). Marketing management and sexism in promotion: The role of leadership. Psicologia em Estudo, 25, e44779. doi: 10.4025/psicolestud.v25i0.44779 » https://doi.org/10.4025/psicolestud.v25i0.44779

Tanure, B. (2004). Gestão à brasileira São Paulo, SP: Atlas.

Thiago, F., Kubo, E., Pamplona, J., & Farina, M. (2020). Estilo de gestão de produtores rurais. Revista de Economia e Sociologia Rural, 58(2), e188254. doi: 10.1590/1806-9479.2020.188254 » https://doi.org/10.1590/1806-9479.2020.188254

Thompson, G., & Vecchio, R. (2009). Situational leadership theory: A test of three versions. Leadership Quarterly, 20(5), 837-848. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.06.014 » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.06.014

Uhl-Bien, M. (2006). Relational leadership theory exploring the social processes of leadership and organising. Leadership Quarterly, 17, 654-676. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.10.007 » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.10.007

Uhl-Bien, M., & Ospina, S. (2012). Advancing relational leadership theory: A conversation among perspectives Charlotte, USA: Information Age Publishers.

Uhl-Bien, M., Marion, R., & McKelvey, B. (2007). Complexity leadership theory: Shifting leadership from the industrial age to the knowledge age. Leadership Quarterly, 18, 298-318. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.04.002 » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.04.002

Uhl-Bien, M., Riggio, R., Lowe, K., & Carsten, M. (2014). Followership theory: A review and research agenda. Leadership Quarterly , 25, 83-104. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2013.11.007 » https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2013.11.007

Vilela, J. (2017). Is leadership an ideology? A research project inspired by T. W. Adorno. RAM -Revista de Administração Mackenzie, 18(1), 15-39. doi: 10.1590/1678-69712017/administracao.v18n1p15-39 » https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-69712017/administracao.v18n1p15-39

Walumbwa, F., Avolio, B., Gardner, W., Wernsing, T., & Peterson, S. (2008). Authentic leadership: Development and validation of a theory-based measure? Journal of Management, 34(1), 89-126. doi: 10.1177%2F0149206307308913 » https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0149206307308913

Western, S. (2013). Leadership: A critical text London, UK: Sage.

Westfall, C. (2019, June 20). Leadership development is a $366 billion industry: Here's why most programs don't work. Forbes, Recuperado de https://www.forbes.com/sites/chriswestfall/2019/06/20/leadership-development-why-most-programs-dont-work/?sh=76e044fc61de » https://www.forbes.com/sites/chriswestfall/2019/06/20/leadership-development-why-most-programs-dont-work/?sh=76e044fc61de

Wood, M. (2005). The fallacy of misplaced leadership. Journal of Management Studies, 42(6), 1101-1121. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.2005.00535.x » https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2005.00535.x

Yammarino, F., Salas, E., Serban, A., Shirreffs K., & Shuffler, M. (2012). Collectivistic leadership approaches: Putting the 'we' in leadership science and practice, Industrial and Organisational Psychology, 5(4), 382-402 doi: 10.1111/j.1754-9434.2012.01467.x » https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2012.01467.x

Yukl, G. (2011). Contingency theories of effective leadership. In B. Bryman, D. Collinson, K. Grint, B. Jackson, & M. Uhl-Bien (Eds.), Handbook of leadership (pp. 286-298). London, UK: Sage.